Cardinal richielieu- sought to make king’s power ABSOLUTE. Consolidated the state, and decreased the power of the nobility. Minister under Louis XIII
Duc de sully- French minister under henri iv.
Henri IV- Born catholic but converted to Protestantism. Extreme religious TOLERATION (PARIS IS WELL WORTH A MASS).
Edict of Nantes- 1598. Religious toleration for all Protestants. Revoked by Louis XIV under Edict of Fontainebleau.
Cardinal Mazarin- Minister under Louis XIV. Blamed for the Fronde.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert- Minister of finances under Louis XIV. Raised amount/quality of French manufacturing. Raised tariffs on foreign goods. Regulated guilds.
Oliver Cromwell- Lord Protector of Commonwealth of England. Passed rules against Roman Catholics. Had Charles I assassinated.
Charles I- Reportedly acted as an absolute monarch; married Roman Catholic princess and brought Catholicism too close to Protestanism.
Charles II- Return to morality after English civil wars and the Commonwealth.
James II- Believed in divine right of kings. Attempted to create religious liberty for Roman Catholics and Protestant non-conformists. Deposed in Glorious Revolution. Followed by English Bill of Rights.
Huguenots- Members of Protestant Reformed Church of France. Inspired by John Calvin. Thousands killed by Catholics in St. Bartholemew’s Day Massacre.
Privateer- Person/ship authorized by government to attack foreign ships during wartime.
Prince Henry the navigator- Portuguese Prince. Encouraged his father to capture Ceuta.
Muhammed Tuore-Emperor of Songhai Empire. Trade with Europe and Asia, creation of many schools, and made Islam an integral part of the Empire.
Vasco de Gama- First person to sail around Africa. Reached India.
Kilwa Kisiwani- Island off Eastern African coast in present day Tanzani.