Topic 5 : Methods of Enquiry
• Focus Groups
• In-depth interviews
• Use of primary and secondary sources
• Participant and non-participant observation
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
The selection of which research approach is appropriate in a given study should be based upon the...
All methods involve observation, but participant observation is characterized by the extent to which its advocates insist on observation and interpretation of a situation, informed by an understanding of the situation from the point of view of the participants rather than the observer. An attempt...
2. Explain the difference between non participant and non-participant learning.
Non-participant, or direct, observation is where data are collected by observing behaviour without interacting with the participants.
Participant observation is where data are collected by interacting with, and...
(Fetterman, 1989). There are two main techniques within ethnography, that is firstly, interviews, and secondly, observational methods of participant and non-participant forms (Goetz and LeCompte, 1984; Hammersley, 1990; Lindsay, 1997; Wainwright, 1997).
This discussion aims to analyse ethnography as...
individual(s) thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Or how they think they feel and behave. Interviews can give us both quantitative and qualitative data about participants' thoughts, feelings and behaviours. This is due to the standardisation and/or free ranging nature of questions asked. The more structured or standardised...
Outline and discuss advantages and disadvantages
of participant observation
Participant observation is a qualitative research method, which originated in the field work of social anthropologists. In traditional ethnographic research, participant observation always took place in community settings...
It is very important that staff, other professions and parents know how to help support young people with challenging behaviour. The potential participants of this research are teachers, Teaching assistants or anyone who might be interested. The research project has been motivated by the module ED2019...
laboratory experiment. It is unusual because no independent variable is manipulated.
4 The participants were a volunteer (self-selecting) sample.
5 In all the trials the ‘learner’ was played by Mr Wallace.
6 The participant believed he was giving electric shocks to the ‘learner’.
7 The highest level of electric...
Advantages and Disadvantages
Face to face
View subjects in
natural setting or
Structured or semistructured face-toface interviews
Advantages: minimizes response...
Two way communication can be done - interviewer can help the interviewee answer the questions.
Longer interviews are possible.
Additional questions may be asked to get a more detailed response.
Highest response rate
Can use different interviewing techniques
y remains unexplained.
Are relatively simple and provide a numerical representation that is easy to understand.
Allow the study of a number of variables that cannot be manipulated experimentally.
Impossible to make cause-effect conclusions
Willis – pupil subcultures (learning to labour)
Patrick – Gang culture (Glasgow gangs)
Humphreys – Gay subcultures and covert participant observation
Miller – Focal concerns, lower working class male subculture
Matza – Delnquency and drift, techniques of neutralisation, subterranean values
Intro. To Sociology
Feb. 9, 2013 “Advantages vs Disadvantages to
Henslin used the method of participant observation to conduct his study of the homeless.
There are advantages as well as disadvantages to this type of research that he did. I will explain
questionnaires which is gathering information through interacting with another person, like interviews which is also interaction with another person. Observation is also a method of primary research as you are gathering the information from what you are observing.
Secondary research: Secondary research...
comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about...
organized below by the extent to which an experimenter intrudes upon or controls the environment.
Naturalistic observation, also known as nonparticipant observation, has no intervention by a researcher. It is simply studying behaviors that occur naturally in natural contexts...
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Week 1 DQ 2
What is the goal of ethics in research? List at least one obligation of the participant, the researcher
interview structure would be asked? Why? What are some questions that would be asked? Why? What are some distinct advantages of a qualitative data gathering strategy, such as participant observation, over more quantitative approaches? When conducting survey research, how important is informed consent and confidentiality...
whether to embrace the technique.
Descriptive Research As its name suggests, descriptive research seeks to provide an accurate description of observations of a phenomena. The object of the collection of census data is to accurately describe basic information about a national population at a particular...
of a single person, group, event or community. Typically data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods (e.g. observations & interviews).
1. Provides detailed (rich qualitative) information.
2. Provides insight for further research.
3. Permitting investigation...
repeated specific behavioural outcomes in the future. The experimental method clearly shows the reason why behaviour occurs and this is the methods main advantage. Randomly assigning subjects is crucial as it means subjects are solely by chance. If not researchers are unable in a tightly controlled environment...
(Collis & Hussey, 2003,)
Research methods are chosen to try and describe, translate...
Types of Data Collection
Advantage of Interviews
Disadvantage of Interviews
Self-Administered Questionnaire Methods
Advantage of Self-Administered Questionnaire Methods
Disadvantage of Self-Administered Questionnaire Methods
research method and its advantages and disadvantages for use in this study.
|Research Method |Advantages |Disadvantages |
|Naturalistic Observation |The participant(s) are more likely to act...
by the amount of times each participant acquaints with their social group. This T-Test can be recorded by the observation of participants. The independent variables for my experiment are the cell phones and the dependent variables are the amount of times the participants are acquainting with their social...
Participation to investigate violent crimes.
DAT: Covert participation is a type of observation whereby the researcher is involved within the gangs acts as they are hiding the fact that they are a researcher. This type of observation is most likely to produce qualitative data even though it is hard to record...
why or how
include case studies,
reviews of previous
related studies and
techniques are most
often used to
collect, analyse and
experiment over a period of time. The advantages of this are that it is a powerful research method and that it establishes a cause and an effect and it can be replicated easily. The disadvantages are that it can take a lot of time, it is difficult to find willing participants and there is a bigger risk of human...
an exact science.
KEY WORDS: Argyle, behaviourism, case-study, conditioning, experiment, learning perspective, methodology, naturalistic observation, Pavlov, research, Skinner, Watson
The learning perspective is one of the most important movements to ever take place in psychology...
Examine the advantages and disadvantages of using ethnographic methods for sociological research
I am going to look at the advantages and disadvantages of using ethnographic methods for sociological research. Ethnography is in-depth research into people’s lives through the use of primary data such...