the definition of marketing adopted by the American Marketing Association (AMA) in 2004 and the proposition of an alternative definition offered by Grönroos (2006).
Since 1948, the AMA has been responsible for an official definition of marketing used in books, by marketers and in university teaching in...
Summary & point of view: Grönroos, chapters 7, 8 & 9
Behind every service there is a complicated process of developing this service. The starting point is a basic service package consisting of 1) the core service, 2) enabling services (and goods) and 3) enhancing services...
into account all the aspects of a service that customer perceive. Gronroos has laid down four steps process for development of a new service. He starts of with the service concept, which explains the intentions of the organization (Gronroos, 2000, p.165). The second step is the basic service package. This...
Most academics acknowledge the shift in marketing from a purely transactional to a more of a relationship one (Hollensen, 2010; Grönroos, 2004; Ravald and Grönroos, 1996; Ulaga and Chacour, 2001). As a consequence, some major contributors on the literature of customer perceived value engage upon...
alike. A number of academics have been unsatisfied with the AMA’s 2004 marketing definition , and it has stirred many debates (Grönroos, 2006, Dann 2008). Christian Grönroos in particular focuses on four elements of the AMA 2004 definition he does not approve of. Firstly on the creation of customer value...
This kind of communication is related to the traditional role of communication: a certain message is
coined, sent and received (Finne & Grönroos, 2009).
A critical situation where the factors are added in a message is a normal price or offer to purchase a
product sent by an unknown seller...
market, its strong head’s up competition with Pepsi has forced Coca-Cola to maintain affordable pricing to appeal to its broad middle class market (Grönroos, 1994). The company was compliment by shareholders and analysts in 2011 for preserving a relatively low price points in response to the economic recession...
current marketing and management literature, a service logic emphasizes
customers as co-producers of service processes (Eiglier and Langeard, 1976; Gronroos,
1982) and creators of value for themselves, according to the value-in-use notion
(Woodruff and Gardial, 1996; Normann, 2001; Vargo and Lusch, 2004)...
J. D. Seader, Ernest J. Henley, D. Keith Roper
Service Management and Marketing Customer Management in Service Competition, 3rd Edition Christian Gronroos
Services Marketing Management A Strategic Perspective, 2nd Edition Hans Kasper, Piet Van Helsdigen
Simulation Modeling and Arena Manuel D. Rossetti
Americans. European researchers concentrate on functional and technical aspects of
services having a keen analysis of organization's image (Gronroos, 1982, 1984;
Lehthinen and Lehthinen, 1982). They focus on three dimensions of service quality to
measure the performance of any product by considering...
quality as well, to wit: performance, durability, reliability, serviceability, the "bells and whistles," and aesthetic elements. In a similar view, Gronroos (1984) acknowledges the need to define quality of services in terms of consumer perceptions and suggests that service quality may be a function of...
Practice”, 4th ed., by Prentice Hall
5. Houston, F. And Gassenheimer, J. (1987), “Marketing and Exchange”. Journal of Marketing, October pp 3-18
6. Gronroos, C. (2004),”The Relationship Marketing Process: Communication, Interaction, Dialogue, and Value”. Journal Of Business and Industrial Marketing, 19(2)...
tomorrow’s customers, and calculate the revenue the customer
generates, and estimate own future investment opportunities”. According to research by Gronroos
“Customer loyalty and the maintenance of the customer relationship are in fact dependent on
how well a product and service measures...
involved in marketing of services in some form or the other (Berry and Parsuraman 1991; Bitner 1995; Crosby and Stephens 1987; Crosby et al. 1990; Gronroos 1995).
For example, in the airline industry, most of the airline companies are now de-intermediating the ticketing system. Till recently, the sale...
customer value as a cognitivistic process( Zeithaml, 1988; Gronroos. 2000), | 1.The most popular view of customer value in service marketing and management is the cognitivistic view on customer value as a form of assessment which presents value creation as a form of internal negotiation between sacrifices...
brands (Gronroos, 1984; Heskett, 1987; Lee et al.,
2005; McDonald et al., 2001; O’Cass and Grace, 2003;
Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000) and their satisfaction level
Wong and Musa
(Crosby et al., 1990) through their behaviour and
attitudes during the delivery of the service. According to
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changed significantly, and the principles of “scientific management” are not applicable to the same extent as before in the industrial society’ (C. Grönroos, 1994:10). Indeed, due to the evolution of the society, taylorism could be considered as out-dated.
Firstly, from the 19th century to the present...
services for them, so as to satisfy them, and then, this will result in delivering better services to final customers in effective and efficient ways (Grönroos, 1990a, p.8). Therefore, it is important for employers to apply the marketing strategies and tools used for external and/or final customers to the...
Tynan, 2000). Harker (1999) found 26 distinct definitions in his examination of the RM concept. The most cited and the "best" (Harker, 1999) is from Gronroos (1994): “RM is to identify and establish, maintain and enhance and when necessary also to terminate
relationships with customers and other...