biological system

biological system

Question 1

List and provide a brief discussion of the seven categories of toxic responses that a biological system may have.
. There are seven categories of toxic responses:
• Acute toxicity. This category is related to the immediate toxic responses that every biological system may have. This exposure of toxic substances for shorter duration and the diverse effect is high
• Sub-chronic toxicity. This group results from exposure that is recurring numerous times. It is an ordinary human exposure type that occurs due to some pharmaceuticals or environmental agents.
• Chronic toxicity. This relates to exposure of toxic substances for longer duration and the diverse effects are low. For instance, chronic bronchitis for tobacco addict and cirrhosis for alcohol addict
• Carcinogenicity. This group refers to a complex abnormal process in cells which leads to cancer.
• Developmental toxicity. This group refers to toxic responses to the developing embryo. This occurs due to the exposure of toxic substances to your partners prior to the act of conception. This leads to the death of cells of the fetus.
• Genetic toxicity. The major cause of this kind of toxicity is a severe damage of DNA. This process is known as mutagenesis. It leads to cancer, or death of the cell.
• Organ toxicity. This group is associated to toxic responses to different organs. It involves blood and cardiovascular toxicity, eye toxicity, dermal toxicity, reproductive toxicity, respiratory toxicity and various forms. (Hodgson, 2004, p.275)

Hodgson, E. (2004) A Textbook of Modern Toxicology. Wiley-Interscience; 3-rd edition.

Question 2

List and provide a brief explanation of the types of Phase I reactions of metabolism of foreign substances.
The types of Phase 1 reactions are:
Oxidation- This is the additional of oxygen or removal of hydrogen to a substrate will make the compound more polar and therefore more water-soluble. The...

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