• Submitted By: kladal
  • Date Submitted: 03/01/2009 12:51 PM
  • Category: Science
  • Words: 390
  • Page: 2
  • Views: 380


The Swedish scientist Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) was the first person to use of term catalyst.

Types of Catalysts:
✓ Heterogeneous catalysts
✓ Homogeneous catalysts
✓ Electrocatalysts
✓ Heterogeneous catalysts
✓ Organcatalysts

Uses of catalysts:

Biological catalysts

✓ fermentation - to produce beer, wine and soy sauce

✓ production of antibiotics

✓ Washing powders remove stains such as blood from fabrics

Non-biological catalysts are useful because:

➢ They speed up reactions, are reusable, save energy and money (low temperature and pressure)

➢ They are able to manufacture petrol and other chemicals from oil.

➢ They reduce pollution.

Haber process

The Haber process is a method for producing ammonia developed by Germany during World War I. The Germans used the ammonia as a source of nitrogen for making explosives. The process is still used by industrial chemists.

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) + 92 kJ

Ammonia is used to make nitric acid, which in turn reacts with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate.
Ammonium nitrate is a very important fertiliser.

Ziegler-Natta catalyst

A Ziegler-Natta catalyst is a reagent or a mixture of reagents used in the production of polymers of 1-alkenes (α-olefins). Ziegler-Natta catalysts are typically based on titanium compounds and organometallic aluminium compounds, for example triethylaluminium, (C2H5)3Al.

Ziegler-Natta catalysts are used to polymerize terminal 1-alkenes.

n CH2=CHR '' -[CH2-CHR]n-

Catalytic converter

A catalytic converter is a device used to reduce the toxicity of emissions from an internal combustion engine

The catalytic converter consists of catalyst itself. Mostly the platinum is used because it is the most active one. Also palladium and rhodium are used as well. Platinum and rhodium are used as a reduction catalyst, while platinum and palladium are used as an oxidization catalyst


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