children psychology

children psychology

Literature Review: Identify and examine important theoretical concepts and research evidence relating to gender

Brief Introduction
There are wide discussions regarding whether gender identities are innate or socially constructed. The scientists and the essentialists proposed several theories to support the fact that gender is inborn due to distinct hormonal discrepancies, brain structure and sexual body features. However, some sociologists claimed that it should be attributed to the society. Since it shapes and makes clear distinction between the two genders through socialization, the construction of gender has been produced during early infancy. This essay will argue that gender identities are socially constructed.

Introduction to Gender as performativity
Judith Butler introduced a concept in her book “Gender Trouble” in 1990, overthrowing the general view that gender is what people born to be. According to Butler, gender performativity means that people’s gender is constructed through a stylized repetition of gender performance. It is argued that the regular imitations of the conventions of gender lead to the arisen belief of the actors themselves that they are internally gendered (Bulter, 1999). Most importantly, in the view of Butler, the process of miming of repeated acts is within a highly inflexible regulatory flame. In the other words, Butler claimed that there is no freedom to choose whether he or she is going to perform. However, there is always a script assigned for each gender, which is the regulatory frame mentioned previously (Bulter, 1999). Another important point regarding the concept of gender performativity is that gender is only real in the sense that the way people perform such as walking, acting, and speaking. Butler stressed the point that, “real only to the extent this it is performed”.

Introduction to Gender as social construct
On the other hand, the concept of gender performativity is related to the theory of social...

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