Gender roles in parenting and marriage

Sigmund Freud suggested that biology determines gender identity through identification with either the mother or father.[citation needed] While some people agree with Freud,[who?] others[who?] argue that the development of the gendered self is not completely determined by biology, but rather the interactions that one has with the primary caregiver(s).

According to the non-Freudian view,[clarification needed] gender roles develop through internalization and identification during childhood. From birth, parents interact differently with children depending on their sex, and through this interaction parents can instill different values or traits in their children on the basis of what is normative for their sex.[citation needed] This internalization of gender norms can be seen through the example of which types of toys parents typically give to their children (“feminine” toys such as dolls often reinforce interaction, nurturing, and closeness, “masculine” toys such as cars or fake guns often reinforce independence, competitiveness, and aggression).[1] On the other hand it has been shown that rhesus macaque children exhibit preferences for stereotypically male and female toys.[27] Education also plays an integral role in the creation of gender norms.[28]

In Strong Fathers, Strong Daughters, Meg Meeker emphasizes the importance of opposite-gender parental roles. She claims "fathers, more than anyone else, set the course for a daughter's life."[29]

Gender roles permeate throughout life and help to structure parenting and marriage, especially in relation to work in and outside the home.
Gender inequality in relationships

Gender equality in relationships has been improving over the years but for the majority of relationships, the power lies with the male.[30] Even how men and women present themselves is divided along gender lines. A study done by Szymanowicz and Furnham, looked at the cultural stereotypes of...

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