From sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord

From sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord


Interneurons carry information between other neurons only found in the brain and spinal cord

INPUT From sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord

Cell body
round, centrally located structure
contains DNA
controls protein manufacturing
directs metabolism
no role in neural signaling

Information collectors
Receive inputs from neighboring neurons
Inputs may number in thousands
If enough inputs, the cell’s AXON may generate an output

Frontal lobe—largest lobe, produces voluntary muscle movements; involved in thinking, planning, and emotional control
Temporal lobe—primary receiving area for auditory information
Occipital lobe—primary receiving area for visual information
Parietal lobe—processes somatic information

Neurons communicate by means of an electrical signal called the action potential
Action potentials are based on the movements of ions between the outside and inside of the cell
When an action potential occurs, a molecular message is sent to neighboring neurons

Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. The cortex (thin layer of tissue) is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white. The cortex covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum and cerebellum. The portion of the cortex that covers the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex.

The detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities.

Functional Plasticity
It is the brains ability to shift functions from damaged areas of the brain to undamaged.
For example: if the auditory part of your brain was damaged, another part of the brain may take on that task.

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