The images employed that reflect certain positive versus negative value orientations based on cultural codes and archetypal meanings, for example, uses of dark or black colors to portray an urban area as dangerous or threatening (Lacey, 1998).
Stuart Hall (1997) cites the example of the meaning of traffic lights—the fact that the signified meanings of red and green are culturally determined based on a code system that indicates that in certain cultures, red means “stop” and green means “go.”




- What appeals are made to what audiences?
- Whose beliefs or values are being reinforced or validated?
- How are certain products linked to certain representations for certain audiences?

Classical Criminology. A school of thought based upon utilitarian notions of free will and the greatest good for the greatest number. At its core, classical criminology refers to a belief that a crime is committed after an individual weighs the pros and cons. The decision to commit a crime is a rational decision, and is best countered through a deterrence-based system.

Free Will. The belief that humans are rational, and have the ability to make decisions according to each individual’s own will and purposes. Under this perspective, people can understand the difference between right and wrong, and can choose to commit criminal acts or to follow the law. In later chapters, this view will be contrasted with views that claim that crime is a result of biological, psychological, or social forces beyond an individual’s control.

Perceptual Deterrence. This concept applies to an individual offender, and refers to what he or she believes the likelihood of arrest to be, and how severe he or she believes the punishment for a crime will be if caught. The perceptions of the individual are often very different from the actual reality experienced.
Rational Choice Theory. This is the 1980s...