International Migration

International Migration

One example for the globalization of international migration can be seen in Singapore of which nearly a third of the total workforce are non-residents due to the fact that the country is dependent on foreign labour at all skill levels. Migrants come from several countries like Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, India and China. While settlement and family reunification are not allowed for unskilled workers, skilled workers and professionals are given privileged status and are encouraged to settle permanently. (Castles and Miller, 2009: 138)

Another example can be found in Australia when they abolished the White Australia Policy and started receiving immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Africa. The economic and political crises in the ‘90s also brought in migrants from the former Soviet Union, Middle East, and South Africa. All legal immigrants were allowed to bring in their families. (Castles and Miller, 2009: 121)

The third example can be found in the oil-rich countries in the Middle East who attract a huge number of workers from Asian countries and also some from Europe or North America who mostly occupy higher posts. Some of the countries of origin have made labour-supply agreements with Gulf countries. (Castles and Miller, 2009: 131)

Feminization of International Migration

Though male workers were primarily recruited in the Middle East for manual labour, women are also now in demand as domestic workers, nurses, sales staff, and other service personnel. Even though some sending countries have banned some types of female migration to avoid exploitation and sexual abuse, it is impossible to enforce due to illegal recruitment. (Castles and Miller, 2009: 131)

Women are also susceptible especially to trafficking and constitute majority of all trafficked victims. Trafficking women usually involve sexual exploitation and forced labour. According to one study, an estimated 50,000 women were trafficked to the USA every year....

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