Middle East

Middle East


Columbian exchange- The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.

Council of the indies- The institution responsible for supervising Spain’s colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities.

Bartolome de las casas- The most influential defender of the Amerindians in the early colonial period.

Potosi- Locatedd in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.

Encomienda- Amerindian peoples where forced to provide European settlers with labor or with textiles, food, or other goods.

Creoles- Whites born in America to European parents and people of mixed ancestry.

Mestizo- Someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent.

Mulatto- Individuals of mixed European and African descent.

Indentured servant- A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.

House of burgesses- The colonial government administered by a crown- appointed governor and his council, as well as by representatives of towns meeting together.

Pilgrims- group of English protestant dissenters who establish Plymouth colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.

Puritans- English protestant dissenters who believed that god predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.

Iroquois confederacy- An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives.

New france- French colony in north America, with capital in quebec, founded in 1608.

Coureurs de bois- French fur traders, many mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian...

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