social Changes

social Changes

Social change - refers to an alteration in the social order of a society.
 social change, in sociology, the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure, characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems.

Social change may include:
1. changes in nature
2. social institutions
3. social behaviors
4. social relations

Evolutionary theory
 Evolutionary theories are based on the assumption that societies gradually change from simple beginnings into even more complex forms.
 According to evolutionary theorist social change meant progress toward something better. They saw change as positive and beneficial. To them the evolutionary process implied that societies would necessarily reach new and higher levels of civilization.

Herbert Spencer (evolutionary theory)
 English Philosopher and Revolutionary Theorist, believed that, as a society grows, the functions of its members become more specialized and better coordinated into the bigger system.

Spencer first derived his general evolutionary scheme from reflection on human society is seen in Social Statics, in which social evolution is held to be a process of increasing “individuation.” He saw human societies as evolving by means of increasing division of labour from undifferentiated hordes into complex civilizations. Spencer believed that the fundamental sociological classification was between military societies, in which cooperation was secured by force, and industrial societies, in which cooperation was voluntary and spontaneous.
Evolution is not the only biological conception that Spencer applied in his sociological theories. He made a detailed comparison between animal organisms and human societies. In both he found a regulative system (the central nervous system in the one, government in the other), a sustaining system (alimentation{the process of affording nutriment or nourishment} in the one case, industry in the other), and a...

Similar Essays