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INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS USED IN STATATISTICS

Introduction: Statistics

In a broad view approach, there are three main descriptions of the term statistics (in plural), namely: informally or broad approach view, formally (official) or as a study and the “objects or elements” one. Each of these descriptions is made as follows.

Informally or broad approach description

It is evident that notable authors have described statistics (in plural) as “everything dealing even remotely, with any of its processes. The processes include data collection, organization, processing, analyzing, and interpretation of numerical facts (or data). See the diagrammatic summary of these processes overleaf. Generally, we are always involved in one or more of these processes during our everyday life endeavors. Examples include, driving, budgeting, wise-shopping, interaction with media to gain facts and data, etc. As a result of this and by the informal definition above, every one of us is informally a statistician. Important references to this effect include,

John E. Freund, et al. (1993). Elementary Business Statistics: The modern approach,

6th edition, Prentice Hall International Editions, Inc., p.1

Muzrahi and Sullivan (1996). Mathematics: Applied Approach, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p.411.

Ken B. (2004). Business Statistics for Contemporary Decision-making.4th edition. Leyh Publishing, LLC, p.6. A further discussion on this is under the Place of Statistics section.

Formally (officially) or as a study

Formally, statistics is seen as a study. It is seen as a distinct mathematical science study; a branch of mathematics. This could be best illustrated by using a tree diagram where statistics is one of the branches with a stem consists of Algebra and Geometry. Her roots consist of Arithmetic. See the sketch overleaf for details. Thus, occupies a higher position in the mathematics disciplines hierarchy statistics. Her “objects of study” are...