Summary 1: From ‘Black people are not a homosexual act’ to ‘gay is the new Black’: mapping white uses of Blackness in modern gay rights campaigns in the United States”
Throughout this article it is clear that it examines rhetoric of Blackness and civil rights have been deployed by Whites positioned on both sides of modern gay rights discourse in the United States. The article focuses on four different social problems, which are; African American- Civil Rights, Gay rights, Same- sex marriage and Racism.

Before starting the article the author reflects slightly on the findings of the article and what should be expected in reading this article. It states that there are similarities between the past and the present way that society view gay marriage to the issue of racism. Stone & Ward argue the contemporary deployment of blackness between both the gay and anti-gay movements linked to the longstanding use of the race on both sides of anti-gay referendum and initiative campaigns as well as to the long history of racialization of homosexuality.

To help the author put there point across they use a vary of data based research to prove that what they are saying is true. The authors put emphasis on allowing the reader to understand the history of racism and the African American- Civil Rights before stating why it is similar to the current day issue of same sex marriages. The Authors uses media, books, articles and data collection to provide a deeper understanding of the problem. The authors’ focuses on the white normality and the racism of gay movements and how it is have shifted its attention to religious rights as well as the discussion of the effects of decades- long effect to position Black s in the middle of the white conservatives and the predominantly White- run.

The Authors show what the White conservatives have done more sustained work to establish anti-gay ties to Black voters than have White gay activists to establish antiracist ties to...

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