Lecture 5: The Industrial Revolution

I. Characteristics of First Industrial Revolution

starts in England in 1780s
England undergoing large population growth: 5.5M at end of 17th century; by end of 18th population is 9M
This leads to scarcity of resources like land
Development of new technologies and methods of production created to help sustain growing population
major changes include a shift to machine production; machines operated by water and steam power; factory system of production; new methods of communication and transportation, and new forms of managing labor
rapid technological change with creation of textile (cotton) mills, mass-produced iron, coal, steam engine, railroads
example: rise in iron production: 700000 tons in 1830 to 4M by 1860
this increased growth in the British economy also leads to creation of new technologies that help eliminate “bottlenecks” that were limiting trade and growth of industry in fields like iron making, spinning and weaving, mining, transportation
example: roads not suited for increased transportation of bulk goods like coals; leads to construction of new water routes (canals)
first two canals constructed to link Manchester to coal fields in 1757, 1764
major industries start to experience sustained growth as production levels increase in many areas of manufacturing and production
agricultural surplus: Norfolk system (4 field crop rotation); rise in meat production with increased turnip and clover production
closure of common lands – marginalizes farmers, frees them for labor pool
shortages of timber and other natural resources: price of timber in England raised 5x; firewood 10x
this is because many industries (shipbuilding, bread, beer, glassmaking) needed to use wood for fuel and could not initially substitute it with coal because this would ultimately ruin the product

II. Features of the Industrial Revolution

A. New Energy Sources

human, animal, wind and water power
wood a...

Similar Essays