In the early years of management science, the Hawthorne Studies came about as the results of experiments conducted at Western Electric and involved in changes in workplace conditions that produced unexpected results in employee performance. Two teams of employees took part in these experiments, where the lighting conditions for one team was changed. Production for that group rose dramatically. The interesting thing that happened is that production also improved in the group where the lighting remained unchanged.
The studies were undertaken in an effort to determine what environmental effects such as hours of work and periods of rest might have on employee fatigue and productivity. As these studies progressed it was discovered that the social environment could have an equal if not a greater effect upon productivity than the physical environment.
The studies revealed the influence that informal work groups can have on the productivity of employees and on their response to such factors as supervision and financial incentives. It also represented the beginning of nondirective involving with employees.
These studies emphasized the impact of human motivation on production and output. When the first phase of experiments begin it was believed that every social problem was “ultimately individual.” The results found that group rather than individual psychology was a key factor in the production performance of the workers.
Hawthorne Study Summary,
An organization is a formal arrangement of functions, as well as a social system with different cultures. Therefore contribution to management philosophy was important to the field of managing employees by revealing the importance of human emotions, reactions, and response to managing others. It also pioneered the concept of good communication between management and employees.
The importance of the relationship of working groups to management is one of the fundamental problems of organizations. Organizing...