Realism 1860-1890: faithful representation of reality in literature – verisimilitude; prose written in natural vernacular (common language) or dialects. It develops, because of: Civil War; urbanization and industrialization; immigration (Irish, German); as a reaction to Romanticism; The emerging Middle Class. Writers: Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, Henry James, Edgar Lee Masters.
Henry James – international theme – novel explores differences and similarities between American and European theme – ex – Daisy Miller (filthy rich woman from England lives in America, clash between in way of behave – American and expectation of European society. Daisy validates almost every rule – talk to strangers, become friends with porter, dances with one partner all night, goes for a walk with two men. Q: is she coquette or innocent girl?). Aesthetic ideas: to represent life in very common, ugly way, describes social function of art and avoid omniscient point of view. Style: language – highly refined, polished, large vocab. complicated construction. Point of view – psychological analysis, (he was a father of stream of consciousness), psychological realism.
Regionalism (local color fiction) 1865-1895: focuses on characters, dialects, customs, topography, and other features specific to a certain region. It developed because of: dual influence of romanticism and realism; The Civil war and the building of national identity; Writers: Kate Chopin (south); Mary E. Wilkins Freeman (New England); Mark Twain (west); Willa Cather (Midwest).
Mark Twain – firstly – affirmative writer, but later – almost determinist; social critic, loved life, justice, freedom’ hated tyranny and iniquity, despised manners and cruelty. Uses vernacular (colloquial) language of different classes and ethnic groups; puts a lot of humor into his novels; Wrote abroad, Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Life on the Mississipi (“all modern American literature starts at Huckleberry...