1) First ionization energy is the amount of energy an element has on its valence electrons. The more energy an element has, the more likely it is to keep its valence electrons, whereas elements with low ionization energy are more prone to give away their valence electrons. This is why an element such as potassium (K) is likely to give away its valence electrons since it does not have a lot of first ionization energy. On the flip side, an element such as fluorine (F) has a lot of ionization energy making it hard to lose electrons and more likely to gain electrons.
2) a) As you move down the periodic table, first ionization energy decreases. This is because with every group you move down, that element gains an energy level (or outer ring). This makes valence electrons farther from the nucleus thus making it easier for valence electrons release from the element. Ex. Lithium has higher first electron ionization then sodium because sodium has an extra energy level making lithium valence electrons closer to the nucleus.
2b & 3b) First ionization energy is related to atomic radius. Atomic radius decreases as it moves from left to right, and increases as it moves down on the periodic table, whereas first ionization energy increases as it moves from left to right and decreases as it moves down on the periodic table. This makes atomic radius and first electron ionization opposite. This makes sense because elements with a large atomic radius would have valence electrons farther away from the nucleus which means that they would have low ionization energy and would be more prone to release from the element. Elements with a small atomic radius would have valence electrons closer to the nucleus, which would make their ionization energy higher. This means that they would be less prone to giving electrons and more prone to receiving electrons.
3) A) As you move from left to right on the periodic table first ionization energy increases. This is due to the fact that as you move...