Chain of two or more amino acids linked together with peptide bond is referred as peptide. Peptide bond is a unique bond with linkage of carboxyl carbon atom of one amino acid to nitrogen atom of another amino acid in the chain. Two different methods namely solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and liquid phase peptide synthesis (LPPS) are used for synthesis of peptides. Peptides are classified based on the number of amino acids present in the chain. Presence of fifty or more amino acids in a chain formulates a protein molecule.
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Peptides are widely used in medicines and biotechnology. Peptides act as an endocrine signal or a neurotransmitter to regulate most of the physiological processes. Peptides are potential molecules for treating many disease conditions such as diabetes. Currently, 60 peptide drugs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, over five hundred peptide drug molecules are in pre clinical trials and 140 peptide drug molecules are in the clinical trials. Use of peptides for treating various infections is under development and many key players are involved in the process. Based on the type of infections, the global anti-infective peptides market is classified as follows:
Infections such as gram positive and gram negative infections, complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), gingivitis, otitis media and catheter associated infection are treated with anti-bacterial peptides. Infections such as vaginal infection, oral candida infections, and oesophageal candidiasis are treated using anti-fungal peptides. Anti-viral peptides are used to treat viral infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and H5N1 stains....