1. Assessment is a process of collecting data for the purpose of making decisions about students or schools. School personnel use assessment information to make decisions about what students have learned, what and where they should be taught, and the kinds of related services (for example, speech and language services, and psychological services) they need. When we assess students, we measure their competence. Specifically, we measure their progress toward attaining those competencies that their schools or parents want them to master. In schools, we are concerned about competence in three domains in which teachers provide interventions: academic, behavioural (including social), and physical.
(Salvia, J, J. Ysseldyke & S. Bolt (2007) : Assessment in Special and Inclusive Education, 11th edition)
Assessment measures the breadth and depth of learning. Assessment serves many different purposes. It can grade the attainment of learners, help to select candidates for jobs or future courses, contribute to evidence on the effectiveness of courses and teachers, and provide a long-term goal for learners.
(Geoff Patty (2009): Teaching Today – A Practical Guide, 4th edition.)
2. Formative assessment is used throughout the course to form judgements on whether, and to what extent, learning has been successful; and to pinpoint difficulties so that remedial action can be taken. Formative assessment is informative feedback to learners while they are still learning the topic. – Geoff Patty (2009)
Summative, or terminal, assessment takes place at the end of a module, course or academic year. As mentioned at the beginning of the previous chapter, the aim may be to sum up what the candidate can do (criterion referencing). This might be done with the aid of a checklist of skills or competences, and/or by reports or profiles. Alternatively, the aim may be to grade candidates, or place them in a rank order (norm referencing). This is usually done by means...