INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY II
POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION
Our discussion here will focus on the Poverty and Social Exclusion. At the end of the module students will be able to understand the Definition and Measurement of Poverty, Inequality and Poverty, Social Exclusion, the Underclass and Poverty, Gender, Racism, Ethnicity and Poverty, Poverty and Disability, Culture of Poverty as well as Class and poverty.
The terms poverty and social exclusion imply undesirable states. They suggest that individuals or groups suffering from poverty or social exclusion need to be helped so that their situation can be changed. In other words, poverty and social exclusion are usually seen as social problems. Most societies have developed institutions designed to deal with social problems such as poverty and these institutions are often referred to as the welfare state. This work examines the problems in defining and measuring poverty and social exclusion, and the ways in which these social problems can be reduced or eradicated.
The welfare state has sometimes been seen as the most effective way of dealing with poverty, social exclusion and other social problems. However, some sociologists have argued that the welfare state does little to alleviate poverty and social exclusion, and others have even suggested it’s a cause of poverty. There are competing perspective on how the welfare state works and how it should work, ranging from those who see it as essential to solving numerous social problems, to those who see it as counterproductive and as creating more problems than it solves.
At the start of a new century, poverty remains a global problem remains a global problem of massive proportion of the world’s 6 billion people, 2.8 billion live on less than $2 a day, and 1.2 billion on less than $1 a day. Six infants of every 100 do not see their birthday, and 8 do not survive to their fifth. Of those who did reach school age, 9 boys and 14 girls...