Grape Juice, Berries, and Walnuts Affect Brain Aging Behavior
The objective of this article was to describe the oxidative/inflammatory changes in aging and show what effect grape juice, berries, and walnuts can have on these age-related changes.
The hypothesis was that grape juice, berries, and walnuts will improve brain aging and behavior.
This study was conducted so that people could become more knowledgeable about the effects of certain fruits and nuts on brain aging and behavior. It is important because increases in one’s health span, and enhancement in cognitive and motor function, can keep him/her from developing age related diseases. Plus, it could improve health in places that contain aging populations.
This experiment was composed of several different tests. In the first one, they obtained two concentrations of Concord grape juice (10 and 50%) and controlled it with a placebo that was formulated to have the same energy load. They let rats drink each of these and perform a series of tests, including the Morris water maze. Another test was done in which 30% concentrations of Concord grape juice, Niagara, and Generic White were compared in order to evaluate the role of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. (The Concord grape juice was composed of both proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, while Niagara only contained proanthocyanidins, and Generic White did not have either.) The control group was a placebo whose acidity and energy was the same as the other juices. Rats were given each of the following to drink, and then were put through motor tests as such as the Morris water maze that dealt with reference memory. In the next test, older adults were given Concord grape juice for twelve weeks and subjected to a California Verbal Learning Test. The control was a placebo that was made to look, taste, and have the same energy load as the grape juice. This trial was randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. In the next one, they supplemented...