19th century history
Four main problems in Britiain:
1) Condition of England question (industrial revolution)
2) Adjusting the parliamentary system: Both factory owners and workers without parliamentary representation , rotten borroughs
3) Economic liberalism vs. protectionism
4) Irish question
Increase in population:
Britain: 1750 : 7.8 million, 1785: 9million, 1820 14.3million, 1852: 21 million
London: 1801 1.1million, 1860 3.5 million (twice as many as Paris), 1911: 7million
by 1851: over Â½ of population lived in towns â' meant uprooting, anonymity, pollution, atrocious working conditions, epidemics. Need to concentrate labour, fuel and raw material--> growth of cities in N, slums.
By 1870:Britain produced 1/3 of entire world produce of manufactures
Incomes: middle class L 100-300, maid: L8-9 plus keep/year, working class family: L 50/year
Most social novels written between 1845-1855, by then worst plight of the âhungry 40s had been partly relieved
Innovation: transport (railways, steamships), new commodities, occupations, machines, factories, police, prisons, science, medicine. Etc....
1789ff.-French Revolution; conservative backlash in Britain.Nelson's and Wellington's victories in Napoleonic wars secured British supremacy at sea
1797/98 rebellion in Ireland quelled--â' 1801 United Kingdom of England. Scotland, Ireland
1807: Abolition of slavery in Britain (not yet in the colonies)
1811/12 Luddite Riots: destruction of machinery
1815 Corn Laws (protected British agriculture)
1925 legal bans for trade unions
1829 Catholic emancipation
1832: 1st Parliamentary reform: abolishment of rotten boroughs, franchise for house owners (electorate rises by 50%), new names for parties: Conservatives and Liberals (formerly Tories = landed genry, Anglican Church vs Whigs = Dissenters, trade and industry). In the course of 19th cent. change of parties in from aristocratic cliques to mass movements. Most famous political leaders:Disraeli...