Use at least five articles from scholarly sources in a paper that paraphrases from a system's perspective the political subdivisions of police governmental powers per federalism, including the specific U. S. Constitution Amendments that established their powers, as well as the significant historical events, which helped orchestrate America's move toward law enforcement.
Use at least five articles from scholarly sources in a paper that describes police discretion, and the various control mechanisms available i.e., internal control mechanisms, external control mechanisms, control by the citizens, legislative control, and control by the courts.
Discretion is define as the right to choose what should be done in a particular situation, or the quality of being careful about what you do and say so that people will not be embarrassed or offended. (Merriam-Webster, 2013) It is the quality of being discreet. Discretion can have both positive and negative connotations. (Gaines K Larry, 2014) Seldom are the police criticized by people who benefit from a discretionary decision not to arrest them; however, under the same circumstances, officers may be criticized by the victim, bystanders, or by the public for their lack of action. (Gaines K Larry, 2014)
Police departments have an obligation to ensure the officer behavior agency procedures, and actions are reasonable and effective. There is an array of mechanisms that are available to avoid problematic situations. An internal control mechanism is established by the police department policy and guidelines in order to control their officer’s behavior. Policies the directly affect a department’s ability to detect and correct abuses of discretion or authority include requirements that officers and interested parties who witness such abuses must report them. (Gaines K Larry, 2014) External control mechanisms are imposed on the department by other agencies or individuals who may or may not have an understanding of the police...