Western Governors University
A. Investigated Disease Process
The most prevalent diagnosis among hospitalized patients in the United States (U.S.) is heart failure (HF), accounting for more than one million hospitalizations a year (Paul & Hice, 2014). In 2006 the American Heart Association (AHA) estimated 5.1 million people in the U.S. were diagnosed with heart failure(HF), in 2014 they estimated 6.8 million and 9.2 million by 2020 (American Heart Association, 2016). Treatment for HF is extremely expensive costing approximately 21 billion dollars in 2012, accounting for the highest percentages of cost from hospitalization expenses (Paul & Hice, 2014). Locally Statics released by New York State shows HF in the community of Brookhaven to be higher than the national average per 10,000 hospitalizations, with a rate of 42.3, New York State rate is 40.1 and nationally 39.0. (New York State Department of Health, 2014). The HF hospitalization rate for males under age 65 increased by 21% from 2000 to 2014 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Data suggest that HF-related survival rates are as poor as those associated with cancer. (Volpe, Marino Carnovali, & Mastromarino, 2016). Most recently the Affordable Care Act has put into effect measures to address the quality and cost of health care in the US. Readmission rates are now linked to hospital reimbursement with hospitals paying a potential penalty when HF patients are readmitted within thirty days from discharge. The care of the patient with HF is also linked to Joint Commission Core Measures and value based purchasing. The high costs associated with HF, like many chronic diseases, are driven by our deeply fragmented and uncoordinated health care system. The lack of communication and coordination among patients, providers and health care institutions cause major gaps in care. However, the good news is that...