Deception is used by law enforcement to help them gather facts or the truth about a crime committed. Deception is one of the most used tools in investigation, interrogative, and the testimonial process and some believe that telling a little “white lie” to catch a criminal is not a problem. Criminal activities are increasing at a fast rate in the United States and law enforcement needs some type of help in catching a criminal and sometimes saving a life. One of the questions posed by some not in law enforcement could be if it is ethical to lie to obtain the truth. This paper will discuss that topic along with if it is a conflict between the code of ethics and how law enforcement is conducted. This paper will also discuss the role physical behavior and nonverbal communication play in detecting deception.
According to Skolnick and Leo (1993) the typology of interrogatory deception discusses interview versus interrogation, Miranda warning, misrepresentation of the nature or seriousness of the offense, role playing, misrepresentation of the moral seriousness of the offense, the use of promises, the misrepresentation of identity, and fabricated evidence. Police rely on deception when it comes to interrogation and at times it is the only way to find the truth. The police used severe beating and torture for years to obtain a confession out of a suspect and this type of activity was known as the “third degree” but now that times have changed mainly because of the Miranda warning, what is used most is deception. The police used the “third degree” type of coercion to get a suspect to admit to a crime and at times this included innocent suspects. This type of coercion would range from depriving a suspect of food, water, restroom breaks, physical abuse, to violating some of their other civil liberties.
Here are some small details about Skolnick and Leo typology of interrogatory deception. As long as a suspect believes that he is there only for an...