Comparative Criminal Justice
July 21, 2013
Policing and Corrections under Civil Law: Drug Testing on Probationers
Probation can be defined as “a sentence imposed by the court under which the defendant is not imprisoned as long as he or she maintains a certain standard or behavior,” (pg. 127). Probation involves replacing a part of the defendant’s sentence of confinement with a conditional release. This includes a contract between the defendant and the court. If the probationer complies with certain conditions of the court, the court will not typically require the defendant to serve a specific sentence. If the probationer violates the terms of the contract, the court is no longer in terms of the contract and the probationer might have to serve a specific sentence that was stated in the contract. Probation in the United States can often vary by state. Probation is the most popular sentence given in felony cases in the United States. In some states, the jury might decide the punishment and in other states, the judge is permitted to grant probation. As opposed to jail or prison time, probation is a lower cost alternative and that is why it’s often used. There are approximately 1,900 probation agencies in the United States and increasing because of the amount of people that are on parole. In the United States, there is a probation office for each felony court. The individual in charge of a probation office called a chief probation office. The duties of the chief police officer are to supervise other parole officers and to demonstrate effective policies. Probation officers are generally responsible for following four primary tasks: investigations, intake, diagnosis, and treatment supervision.
When someone is convicted of a crime, they are either sent to prison or they are put on probation, depending on the type and the nature of the crime. People who were in jail and are then released are put on parole. Probation is granted as an...