This essay will describe the medical model on which the DSM-IV and ICD are based. It will give details of how they came into use, how they are used and the differences between DSM-IV and ICD. The strengths and critiques of both will be shown, which will include the feminist perspective on the DSM-IV. It will go on to explain how substance dependence is dealt with in the DSM-IV and the changes with how it was dealt with it from the first edition to the fourth edition. It will say how men and woman differ in terms of mental health in the use of the DSM-IV.
The medical model is where it is assumed that mental health problems are the result of physiological abnormalities, generally involving brain systems. The disorder is considered an illness and is therefore treated with physical treatments that change the underlying biological disorder. The type of treatment given is determined by a diagnosis, which is determined by the presence or absence of various signs and symptoms as described in the DSM-IV. More than 200 specific diagnostic categories are described in the DSM-IV, disorders that have similar kinds of symptoms are grouped together, (Bennett, P. 2006).
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) provides the official classification system of mental disorders which is widely used as a reference work by psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians, medical and nursing staff, researchers, policy makers and other professionals in health care and social service fields (Poland, J. 2001).
The first DSM came about from a response to major public health problems in the late 19th century, in the United States, systems of disease coding and classification developed. The first edition appeared in 1952, published by The American Psychiatric Association, (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders).
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), published in 1992 by the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the leading international...