To investigate the changes in volume when glucose and yeast are mixed
together, and the heat of the solution is changed.
When yeast is added with glucose, a reaction called fermentation
occurs. The products of the reaction are carbon dioxide and ethanol,
and represented in the form of a gas and a liquid. The process of
fermentation can be written as:
[IMAGE] Yeast + Glucose Carbon Dioxide + Ethanol + Energy
[IMAGE] C6H12 O6 +6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
As one of the products is in the form of a gas, the volume of the
product can be measured and collected, bringing a set of results,
which can illustrate the reaction, when different aspects of the
experiment are changed.
Fermentation is commercially used for making bread and alcohol.
Fermentation is the breakdown of sugars by bacteria and yeast using a
method called respiration without oxygen. This is called anaerobic
respiration. Molecules break down the yeast. The enzyme has a unique
active site; only a substrate with the same exact unique shape can
fit. Enzymes can be denatured in certain conditions. It can be
denatured in high phs and high temperatures. The bonds, which hold the
enzyme together, are fairly weak, so they can be easily broken. Once
the bonds of the enzyme break, the enzymes active site begins to
change in a large way, this means that the enzyme is becoming
deactivated. This is called denatured.
As the temperature of the solution increases, the amount of CO2
produced will increase; this is because the enzymes substrate will
change, being more reactive. When the substrate changes too much, the
cells active site will begin to de-nature, so the substrate is unable
to work. This will bring down the amount of CO2made. As the
temperature of the enzymes hit its optimum working temperature, the
molecules in the cells move around more, gaining a lot more energy.