Genetics-the scientific study of heredity
Fertilization-during sexual reproduction the male and female reproductive cells join which produces a new cell
Trait-a specific characteristic such as seed color or plant height that varies from one individual to another.
Hybrid-offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Gene-chemical factors that determine traits
Alleles-different forms of a gene
Probability-likelihood that a particular event will occur/the principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses
Punnett Squares-gene combinations that might results from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a diagram called the Punnett Square
Homozygous-organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait/homozygous organisms are true breeding for a particular trait
Heterozygous-organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait/heterozygous organisms are hybrid for a particular
Phenotype-physical characteristics/all tall plants have the same
Genotype-genetic makeup/tall plants do not have the same genotype
Gregor Mendel- worked with pea plants and knew each plant produced pollen which was the plants male reproductive cells, or sperm while the female produces eggs. Fertilization produced a new cell which developed into a small embryo encased in a seed. Pea flowers are self pollinating which meant that sperm cells in pollen fertilize the egg cells in the same flower. The seeds that are produced by the self pollination inherit all of their characteristics from the single plant that bore them. He had peas which were true breeding meaning that if they were allowed to self pollinate they would produce offspring identical to themselves. One stock of seeds would only produce tall plants while the other would produce short ones. One line produced only green seeds, another only yellow seeds. He cut away the pollen bearing male parts and dusting pollen from another plant onto the flower. He did this...