Health outcomes refer to the changes in the health status of individuals or the population. The outcomes are attributed to multiple or planned interventions, whether or not the intention of the intervention was to alter the health status. These interventions include health services and programs including health promotion programs, government policies, laws and regulations, and consequent programs. Intervention may also include unintended or intended health outcomes of government policies in areas besides health. Health outcomes are evaluated by health indicators (World Health Organization, 1998).
Health indicators are a single measure, represented quantitatively, that encapsulates an important aspect of health, such as the amount people suffering from a chronic disease. It also captures a variety of health determinants such as income, or the important aspects of the health care system, such as the proportion of patients who revisit the hospital for additional care following previous treatment (World Health Organization, 1998). These indicators can be used to describe a public health concern at a specific point in time. It can indicate periodic changes over time at the population or individual health level, describe differences in the population health, and examine the extent at which program objectives are being met. These indicators can possibly encompass illness or disease measurements which are commonly used in measuring health outcomes, such as health expectancy, life skills, and quality of life, and behaviors or actions taken by individuals related to health (Rigby &ump; Kohler, 2002).
Child health outcomes tend to be influenced by the parents, the home environment, intact families, maternal and non-maternal quality of care, and religious involvement. The social and behavioral development of children is directly related to the quality of care provided by their mothers and non-maternal care for those in child care. Studies have suggested...