Social, Ecological, Economic and Environmental effects of Africa
Changing patterns of rainfall is likely to have impact on agriculture, as rainfall declines growing seasons shorten as well so threatens food security.
Reduction in crop yields could be as much as 50% by 2020 making the problem of malnutrition even worse
Movement of environmental migrants to coastal African areas puts added strain on local economies for jobs/food etc. and areas often become overcrowded
Major water issues in Africa as many large rivers are internationally shared e.g. Nile. Conflicts could arise between countries
Water stress could lead to wars, global migration and famine
Major increase in malnutrition due to failing crops. Also increase in locust plagues threatening food supply.
Increase in diseases such as malaria (vector-borne) and diarrhoea and cholera (water-borne), and remedies of wild plants under threat
Movement of migrants to coastal areas leads to refugees setting up in poor conditions in shanty towns - many of which will be on the coast which is most at risk from floods with rise in sea levels
Some regions in East Africa have become drier due to changes in land use pattern and climate. Water sources are becoming intermittent or disappearing; streams that used to run year-round are now seasonal. By 2020, some assessments project that 75-250 million people are estimated to be exposed to increased water stress due to climate change. Some assessments, for example, show severe increased water stress and possible increased drought risk for parts of northern and southern Africa and increases in run-off in East Africa. Water access is, however, threatened not only by climate change, but also by complex river basin management. This, coupled with increased demand, will adversely affect livelihoods. Changes in the ecosystem have also had significant impact on wild sources of food which have become hard to find.