1. What was a repercussion of urbanization expanding and the standard of living improving? (pp.561)
The middle and upper class enjoyed unprecedented prosperity and leisure, while misery mounted among the urban working class. Urban slums grew more crowded and living conditions worsened, labor unions thrived, along with their best weapon.
2. How do conditions change for women at the end of the 19th century? (pp.562)
New employment opportunities opened for teachers, nurses, office workers and salesclerks. Colleges and degree programs were developed to train women working conditions for women in factories were now regulated by laws. Women won the right to vote.
3. Read under “scramble for colonies” about imperialism, and how conditions were ripe for the outbreak of WW1. (pp.566)
4. How does your book characterize the shift in mood in Early Modernism? (pp.569)
A mood of uncertainty began to creep into early modernism and under minded its optimism.
5. How/why did Nietzsche challenge the values of the Western Culture? (pp.570)
Saw beyond the optimism of his times and correctly predicted the general disasters, both moral and material. To him philosophies of the past were all false, because they were built on nonexistent absolute principles. Appealed to humanity’s lowest common denominator and were thus destroying western civilization.
6. How did Freud challenge the enlightenment’s view of human nature? (pp.570)
Freud’s analysis of the human mind challenged the enlightenment’s belief that human beings are fully rational. Argued human personality is the product of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality.
7. Be familiar with literary naturalism and Kate Chopin. (pp.573)
A frequent theme of Chopin’s writing was a romantic awakening, usually by a female character. Setting was sketched out in local color (regional details) and her method of tracking the naturalistic- based plot twists on...