Language is defined in the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary as a system of communication consisting of sounds, words and grammar, or the system of communication used by the people of a particular country or profession.
Grammar: it is the branch of linguistics dealing with the form and structure of words or morphology, and their interrelation in sentences, called syntax. The study of grammar reveals how language works, an important aspect in both English acquisition and learning.
Grammatical competence: It mainly focuses on the command of the language code, including things as the rules of word and sentence formation, meanings, spelling and pronunciation (Gao, 2001). The goal is to acquire the knowledge of, and ability to use, forms of expression that are grammatically correct and accurate (Díaz-Rico & Weed, 2010; Gao, 2001). Grammatical competence also “acts to promote accuracy and fluency in second language production (Gao, 2001), and increases in importance as the learner advances in proficiency” (Díaz-Rico & Weed, 2010).
Communicative competence: it is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.
The word “formal” is defined by http://oxforddictionaries.com as an adjective, relating to linguistic or logical form as opposed to function or meaning, or having a conventionally recognized form, structure, or set of rules (amongst other definitions).
“Formal manner” could therefore be defined as a form-based method of language instruction which puts emphasis on focusing the learner's attention on forms in order that they become conscious of the rules of those forms and eventually acquire the language; this definition sends us back to grammatical competence.
Grammatical or Communicative...