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Islamic banking is based on the principles of Islamic economics — an economic framework in accordance with Islamic law (Sharia'h).
There are two types of Islamic economics:
• Caliphate , the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world (Islamic political framework)
• Assuming the political framework is non-Islamic, therefore, seeking to integrate some prominent Islamic tenets into a secular economic framework
Caliphate is the absolute Islamic rule, thus the economy focuses on distribution of resources in order to meet the basic and luxurious needs of individuals in society, and the state has a clear role in policing, taxation, managing public assets, and ensuring the circulation of wealth. Such a political framework in its true form does not exist in today's world.
Assuming non-Islamic political framework simply proposes two main tenets: no interest can be earned on loans and socially responsible investing. This is the way conventional banking is Islamized—the first step towards an Islamic economic framework.
Modern day Islamic scholars and academics have developed various modes of Sharia'h complaint financing that are designed to work within the prevailing capitalist economic framework. In order to achieve this balance numerous concessions have been afforded to financial institutions that would not apply if a viable interest free economic system existed. The intention behind making these concessions is to encourage the evolution of this type of alternative system.
Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia’h) principles and guided by Islamic economics. In particular, Islamic law prohibits usury, the collection and payment of interest, also commonly...