Masculinity and Femininity
1980 defined cultural dimensions
“Masculinity stands for a society in which men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life.”
“… Femininity stands for a society in which both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life.”
“Mas/Fem does not primarily concern the visible roles in society, such as men going out to work and women staying at home to care. These roles are to a large extent determined by economic factors. Mas/Fem concerns first of all the emotional roles in the home. In some societies, men specialize in ego boosting, and women in ego-effacing, roles. In others, the emotional roles are more equally divided, with men also being oriented toward ego-effacing goals.”
“If the Mas/Fem dimension of national cultures has any implications at all, it must be for the division of gender roles in a country.”
This refers to how much a society sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are found in countries where men are expected to be "tough," to be the provider, and to be assertive. If women work outside the home, they tend to have separate professions from men. Low MAS scores do not reverse the gender roles. In a low MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and men working together equally across many professions. Men are allowed to be sensitive, and women can work hard for professional success.
Application: Japan is highly masculine with a score of 95, whereas Sweden has the lowest measured value (5). According to Hofstede's analysis, if you were to open an office in Japan, you might have greater success if you appointed a male employee to lead the team and had a strong male contingent on the team. In Sweden, on the other hand, you would aim for a team that was balanced in terms of skill rather...