A Process Model of Organizational Change in Cultural Context (OC3 Model)
The Impact of Organizational Culture on Leading Change
Gail F. Latta
University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies Volume 16 Number 1 August 2009 19-37 © 2009 Baker College 10.1177/1548051809334197 http://jlos.sagepub.com hosted at http://online.sagepub.com
Change resides at the heart of leadership. Organizational culture is one of many situational variables that have emerged as pivotal in determining the success of leaders’ efforts to implement change initiatives. This article introduces a process model of organizational change in cultural context (OC3 Model) derived from ethnographic analysis. The model delineates the differential impact of organizational culture at every stage of change implementation. Eight stages of cultural influence are identified and illustrated. Research propositions are stated to encourage refinement of the model. Theoretical and practical implications for leadership are explored; applications for resolving organizational immunity to change are discussed. Keywords: organizational culture; organizational change; leadership theory; sensemaking; process model; ethnography;
Purpose and Research Questions
The primary objective of this study was to model the interaction between organizational culture and change, delineating the ways in which a leader’s knowledge of organizational culture affects the process of implementing change, and identifying the stages of the change process at which the interaction between organizational culture and change implementation holds functional significance. Many existing models of organizational change acknowledge the influence of tacit dimensions of organizational life at one or more stages of the change process (Bate, Khan, & Pye, 2000; Burke, 2008; Demers, 2007; Wilkins & Dyer, 1988). These models reflect differing levels of granularity with respect to the process of effecting organizational...