In Chapter 2, several types of moral values are discussed. Discuss any four types of moral values giving specific examples.

Moral can be defined as concerned with the judgment of goodness or badness of human action and character. Moral also can be defined of or relating to the principles of right and wrong in behavior. As an example one of Aesop’s fables “The Tortoise and the Hare”. The Hare is so confident of winning that he lies down halfway though and goes to sleep. The tortoise knowing he must work hard to win, plods along without stopping until he passes the sleeping hare and wins. From the story there is a moral ambiguity about the lesson it is teaching. An old Greek source comments that “many people have good natural abilities which a ruined by idleness, on the other hand, sobriety, zeal and perseverance can prevail over indolence”.

There are six kinds of moral values in chapter 2. There are Instrumental value, Intrinsic value, “Pleasurable” value, subjective value, Objective value and Absolute value. Four types of moral value will be discussed in detail with giving specific examples. The first moral value is Instrument value.

The Instrument value aim, purpose, effect and objective. It is sometimes contrasted with “constitutive” value. The idea behind this distinction is that instrumental values lead causally to intrinsic values, while constitutive values amount to intrinsic values.For example, my giving you money, or a latte, may causally result in your experiencing pleasure, whereas your experiencing pleasure may constitute, without causing, your being happy. For many purposes this distinction is not very important, and constitutive values can be thought, along with instrumental values, as things that are ways of getting something of intrinsic value. I’ll use “instrumental” in a broad sense, to include such values. Examples of instrumental value is shown in Figure 2.19:...

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