Introduction to engineering
Presented By :Prof. Mostafa Mahmoud Soliman
Professor of Geology
What will we discuss:
The invention of writing in Egypt
The appearance of humans
Paint engineering in prehistoric times(cave paintings)
Pigments in ancient engineering and art
The first engineers and the stone industries
Civilizations of the old world
The ancient civilizations of the new world before Christopher Columbus
Surveyors, geometry ,and mathematics
The roots of some names
Irrigation and land reclamation
The first manmade composite material and the fracture mechanics
The construction of the pyramids
Why the great pyramids in Giza where built on a rocky plateau
The invention of writing in Egypt and the historic and prehistoric times:
-The Pliocene age ( 8 – 10 )million years ago __Pre-historic times
-4000 B.C in Egypt __Historic times
The Appearance of humans
Fossils along with evidence of fire and other activities indicate that humans appeared during late Pliocene (8-10 million years ago) in Africa , a region of relatively warm climate , and by the late Pleistocene (about 500,000 years ago) humans migrated northward from Africa into Europe and eastward into Asia.
Paint engineering in prehistoric times (cave painting)
Many cave paintings of prehistoric times were discovered in Europe , Africa and Asia.
The cave drawing and paintings were done by people who lived by hunting animals and gathering wild plants that were suitable to be eaten.
Pigments in ancient Egyptian engineering and art
The ancient Egyptians used pigments on a big scale and in a good taste. Many magnificent paintings are sill preserved on statues , and walls and ceilings of their tombs and temples.
In Egypt, many tomb paintings are as fresh as when they were painted.
The reasons for that is these pigments were made from natural materials (i.e. , minerals and minerals are the naturally occurring chemical...