U T I L I T A R I A N I S M
“Utilitarianism is the effect of an action that establishes its moral worth. Therefore, Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism.” Moreover, it is the theory that holds an action to be held right if it has the tendency to promote happiness for the greatest number of people. In this short paragraph-essay, first two paragraphs would be explaining and understanding of Jeremy Bentham and J.S.Mill attempts towards utilitarianism and at last analyzing the morality of killing in utilitarian’s point of view.
“Jeremy Bentham is one of the first comes in mind when the subject of utilitarianism is raised.” He has given a theory called principle of utility. According to this principle, good action brings joy and happiness, while bad action leads to unhappiness and evil. “Utility can be equated with benefit, advantage, pleasure, happiness and goodness”. In order to calculate the utility of every action we compose, he developed the Hedonic calculus through which you can calculate which action will produce the greatest utility.” Quantity of pleasure being equal, pushpin is as good as poetry.” Furthermore, he believed that pleasure is a standard against which to judge actions and activities. “It is only pleasure and the avoidance of pain that give actions any real value.”
J.S. Smith, influenced by Jeremy Bentham, made a distinction between higher and lower quality pleasure. For him, all pleasures cannot be equal.” The type of pleasure experience is more important than the amount. He categorized pleasure as either higher or lower and that the higher ones were better.” He also rejected Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus. He disagreed with Bentham’s sense of calculating pleasure and pain. He elaborated his rejection by demonstrating that pain and pleasure cannot be compared because they are essentially two different in kind.” Mill regards pains and pleasure as Incommensurable.”
Utilitarian’s define the...