Mughal architecture is the architectural style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It was an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, and Indian architecture. The Mughal Emperors gave a new direction and impetus to architecture. Examples of the style can be found in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings, though few of which have survived. His grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. Among his accomplishments were a tomb for his father Humayun, the Agra Fort, and the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar's son Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir.
Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed the Jama Masjid, the Red Fort, the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, and the most famous Mughal monument, the Taj Mahal, as well as many other fine examples of the style.
While Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb commissioned some buildings such as the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, his reign corresponded with the decline of Mughal architecture and the Empire itself.
Under Jahangir the Hindu features vanished from the style; his great mosque at Lahore is in the Persian style, covered with enameled tiles. At Agra, the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula, which was completed in 1628, was built entirely of white marble and covered in pietra dura mosaic. Jahangir also built the Shalimar Gardens and Nishat Bagh, and their accompanying pavilions on the shore of Dal Lake in Kashmir. He also built a monument to his pet deer, Hiran Minar in Sheikhupura, Pakistan and due to his great love for his wife, after his death she went on to build his mausoleum in Lahore.