In How to Teach English
[Longman 1998] Jeremy Harmer proposed a different three stage model, theESA model: Engage, Study, Activate.
The three stages of engage, study, activate
phase, the teacher tries to arouse the students' interest and engage their emotions.This might be through a game, the use of a picture, audio recording or video sequence, a dramatic story,an amusing anecdote, etc. The aim is to arouse the students' interest, curiosity and attention. The PPPmodel seems to suggest that students come to lessons ready motivated to listen and engage with theteacher's presentation.
phase activities are those which focus on language (or information) and how it is constructed.The focus of study could vary from the pronunciation of one particular sound to the techniques an authoruses to create excitement in a longer reading text; from an examination of a verb tense to the study of atranscript of an informal conversation to study spoken style.There are many different styles of study, from group examination of a text to discover topic-relatedvocabulary to the teacher giving an explanation of a grammatical pattern.Harmer says, 'Successful language learning in a classroom depends on a judicious blend of subconsciouslanguage acquisition (through listening and reading, for example) and the kind of
activities wehave looked at here.
This element describes the exercises and activities which are designed to get students to use the languageas communicatively as they can. During
, students do not focus on language construction orpractise particular language patterns, but use their full language knowledge in the selected situation ortask.