Running Head: Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Prevention
Nursing Measures in Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia
February 28th, 2008
The prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), a hospital acquired infection; among intensive care patients is a major clinical challenge. It is a condition that is associated with high rates of morbidity, mortality, length of stay and hospital costs. A study in 2004 reported that hospital mortality of ventilated patients who develop VAP is 46%, this means that these patients are twice as likely to die as patients without VAP (Murray, 2004). Along with an increased morbidity and mortality there is an associated increased length of stay and corresponding increased cost, reported as high as $50,000 to $57,000 per pneumonia (Murray, 2007). The aim of this paper was to review available literature and identify current evidence based nursing and medical prevention measures taken to reduce and or prevent this complication and analyze whether these prevention measures actually reduced or prevented the number of cases of VAP. My view on the subject is that if these measures were indeed implemented then the number of VAP cases would be reduced. Especially if oral decontamination procedures were implemented. A literature search using keywords on the subject was used and a number of relevant and highly pertinent papers were found. Several nursing journals which utilized evidence based practice nursing research and discussed specific strategies for preventing VAP were selected for analysis and inclusion in this review. Overall trends in the published research point to utilizing several prevention measures with heavy emphasis on oral decontamination to combat VAP.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a condition that occurs after 48 hours in mechanically ventilated patients (CDC, 2004). The presenting signs of VAP include new or...