“outline and evaluate the behaviourist, including two behavioural therapies”
Behaviourist approach: All behaviours learned from experiences that a person has had in their environment. All behaviour is learned through reinforcement or punishment. This was through Watson (1913) Pavlov (1849-1936) and through Skinner (1904-1990).
The following pages outline operant and classical conditioning and behaviour therapies.
Classical conditioning is reflex behaviour and is voluntary to the appreciate stimulus. The theory aims to account the way a new stimulus is associated with reflex behaviour. Classical conditioning was later applied to humans for example a baby would associate the sight of a feeding bottle with milk, it is thought that classical conditioning is responsible for many phobias.
Pavlov was a key thinker in 1927 he was interested in the digestive system of dogs, using classical conditioning he made an association a bell being rung and food being given. Without the bell there was no salivation this is an unconditioned response, the ringing of the bell unconditioned stimulus and food (ucs) means there was salivation.
The bell a conditioned stimulus meant that the dog salivated meaning a conditioned response. A stimulus that you use should be one that you cannot use like spit. If a behaviour has been learned it can be unlearnt, after a while the dog would forget about the food if no stimulus was used.
A case study called Little Albert is another example this was where a child was put in front of a rat, at first he showed no fear, a loud noise was made behind him he then associated this noise with the rat. Ending with him being afraid of rats, today this would be classed as inhumane.
This was the work of Edward Thorndike(1911), his laws of effect stated behaviour that’s leads to positive outcome tends to be repeated. Positive reinforcement-behaviour produces a consequence,...