Pre-Columbian civilizations
Archaeological sites of Chichén-Itzá, one of the New Seven Wonders.

Human presence in Mesoamerica was once thought to date back 40,000 years based upon what were believed to be ancient human footprints discovered in the Valley of Mexico, but after further investigation using radiometric dating, it appears this is untrue.[22] It is currently unclear whether 21,000 year old fire remains found in the Valley of Mexico are the earliest human remains found in the region.[23] For thousands of years, Mesoamerica was a land of hunter-gatherers. Around 9,000 years ago, ancient indigenous peoples domesticated corn and initiated an agricultural revolution, leading to the formation of many complex civilizations.

These civilizations revolved around cities with writing, monumental architecture, astronomical studies, mathematics, and large militaries. For almost three thousand years, Aridoamerica[24] and Mesoamerica[25] were the site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations.

In 1519, the native civilizations of Mesoamerica were invaded by Spain;[26] among them the Aztecs, Mayans, etc. This was one of the most important conquest campaigns in America. Two years later, in 1521, the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered by the Spaniards along with the Tlaxcaltecs, the main enemies of the Aztecs, marking the end of the Aztec and giving rise to the Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1535. It became the first and largest provider of resources for the Spanish Empire and the most populous of all Spanish colonies.

The New Spain
The city of Guanajuato has one of the best preserved examples of colonial architecture.

The New Spain (1535 to 1821) was an important period in Mexico's history, when much of the nation's identity and traditions were created and several cities were built, among them Mexico City, Guadalajara, Veracruz, Queretaro, etc.
The viceroyalty stretched across big part of North America, from the southwestern British Columbia...

Similar Essays