GLAND | DESCRIPTION | LOCATION | OVERSECRETION | UNDERSECRETION |
1. Pituitary | * Secretes a number of hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretion of other glands. * Often called “the MASTER GLAND” of the endocrine system. | * At the base of the brain, near and regulated by – the hypothalamus. | * gigantism | * dwarfism |
2. Thyroid | * Produces a hormone known as “THYROXIN.” This hormone controls the metabolic processes by which the energy is provided for vital functions and activities. | * In the tissue of the neck around the windpipe. | * Leads to speeding up of the metabolism: the individual becomes tense, overactive, and irritable. Insomnia is frequent. Since over secretion is most often caused by iodine deficiency, supplying the iodine reduces the over secretion and solves the problem. | * Leads to a slowdown in the metabolic processes and results in an arrested mental and physical growth. The individual becomes unduly fatigued, loses interest, lacks pep, and easily becomes depressed. An additional supply of synthetic thyroxin may remedy the condition. |
3. Parathyroid | * These are two pairs of small glands adjacent to the thyroid gland. | * Located on either side of, and on, the aspect of the thyroid gland. | * Increased calcium levels/ hypercalcaemia. | * Results in over excitability of the nueromuscular mechanism which leads to a condition called tetanu |
4. Adrenal | * Have two major parts: * Adrenal cortex (external part) secretes hormones collectively known as cortin. * Adrenal medulla (internal part) secretes the adrenaline. | * At the back of the body above the kidneys. | * In women, over secretion of cortin has a masculinizing effect, inhibiting the female functions. | * In cortin, it leads to excessive fatigue, loss of appetite, and apathy. In men, the sexual potency is reduced and symptoms of feminization occur (note the interdependence between the adrenal cortex...