Topics Paper- #1
Utilitarianism vs. Rational Egoism
Utilitarian’s and rational egoist’s differ on their basic views of what human beings most care about. There are many differences that distinguish the two views that people may have on what it considered right and what is considered wrong. In this paper I am going to be explaining the differences between the views of the utilitarian and the rational egoist. The views of these two sides are very important and need to be distinguished between and in the second half of the paper I will give the arguments for and against the two sides. I will first start with explaining what the views on each are and present the basic ideas of each.
First of all, utilitarianism consists of two major things. A theory of what is good, and a theory of what is right. Consequentialism is the utilitarianisms theory of what is right. An option that produces the most good, also produces the least amount of bad consequences. This means that there can be a right alternative to an option even if the only other alternatives produce bad consequences.
Utilitarianism focuses on the well-being and happiness of everyone. It is immoral in the sense that it does not care for wherever the reason leads. It maximizes utility, or happiness, and reduces the suffering. Utilitarianism focuses upon what actions can be said to be right or wrong, that which ought to be done according to the consequences that the action produces.
There are two types of utilitarianism: Act and Rule. Bentham focuses on act utilitarianism and says that one calculates what is right or ought to be done on the basis of comparing the consequences for all of the relevant agents of alternative acts. It is possible to perform in the given circumstances or specific setting at the particular time that the act will be performed. Mill focuses on rule utilitarianism and says that one calculates what is right or ought to be done on the basis of comparing the...