Sensory Integration Disorder in Children
Sensory integration disorder (SID) is a neurological disorder causing difficulties with processing information from the five classic senses (vision, auditory, touch, olfaction, and taste), the sense of movement (vestibular system) and/or the positional sense (proprioception). The concept of SID was developed in the 1970's by the late A. Jean Ayes, PhD, who was a psychologist and occupational therapist who researched the issue of sensory processing and motor planning problems primarily in children with mental retardation. Children can have SID without other diagnoses (such as autism, Asperger's, and ADHD). For those with SID, sensory information is sensed normally, but is perceived abnormally. The information tends to be analyzed by the brain in an unusual way that may cause distress or confusion.
Symptoms of SID include:
• Extreme sensitivity (or under reaction) to touch, movement, sights, or sounds
• Social and/or emotional problems
• Activity level that is unusually high or unusually low
• Physical clumsiness or apparent carelessness
• Impulsivity, or lack of self control
• Difficulty making transitions from one situation to another
• Delays in speech, language or motor skills
• Delays in academic achievement
There are three types of primary diagnostic groups:
• Type I - Sensory Modulation Disorder '' This group may include a fearful and/or anxious pattern, negative and/or stubborn behaviors, self-absorbed behaviors that are hard to engage or creative or actively seeking sensation.
• Type II - Sensory Based Motor Disorder '' Shows motor output that is disorganized as a result of incorrect processing of sensory information.
• Type III '' Sensory Discrimination Disorder '' Sensory discrimination or postural control challenges and/or dyspraxia seen in inattentiveness, disorganization, poor...