Some of the main socio economic events of middle ages
norman conquest by william 1 in 1066
The military conquest of England by William, duke of Normandy, primarily effected by his decisive victory at the Battle of Hastings (Oct. 14, 1066), and resulting ultimately in profound political, administrative, and social changes in the British Isles.
Edward the Confessor, last king of the Old English royal line, had almost certainly in 1051 designated William as his successor.
Struggle with Thomas Becket
Henry attempted to restore the close relationship between church and state that had existed under the Norman kings. His first move was the appointment in 1162 of Thomas Becket as archbishop of Canterbury. Henry assumed that Becket, who had served efficiently as chancellor since 1155 and been a close companion to him, would continue to do so as archbishop. Becket, however, disappointed him. Once appointed archbishop, he became a militant defender of the church against royal encroachment and a champion of the papal ideology of ecclesiastical supremacy over the lay world.
Almost overnight the martyred Thomas became a saint in the eyes of the people. Henry repudiated responsibility for the murder and reconciled himself with the church.
In spite of the treasured memory of great heroes like King Richard "the Lion-Hearted”, the history of the Crusades makes dismal reading. The first Crusade was proclaimed in 1095 by Pope Urban II.Other Crusades follow in 1191,1202,1217 and 1270.Each Crusade began in high hope, in a genuine desire to rescue Jerusalem from the Turks, but most ended squalidly in raiding looting, and a tangle of power politics.Still,in the end, Western Europe gained much from these expeditions to the Near East. Christian Europe was exposed to Arabic culture-especially mathematics and medicine. Commercial and intellectual horizons were greatly broadened, and both knowledge and all manners of refinements in living were...