Polarity is a physical property of compounds which relates other physical properties such as melting and boiling points, solubility, and intermolecular interactions between molecules. Polarity results from the uneven partial charge distribution between various atoms in a compound. Atoms, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and halogens, that are more electronegative have a tendency to have partial negative charges. Atoms, such as carbon and hydrogen, have a tendency to be more neutral or have partial positive charges.
Electrons in a polar covalent bond are unequally shared between the two bonded atoms, which results in partial positive and negative charges. Chromatography can be used to separate mixtures of coloured compounds. Mixtures that are suitable for separation by chromatography include inks, dyes and colouring agents in food. Simple chromatography is carried out on paper. A spot of the mixture is placed near the bottom of a piece of chromatography paper and the paper is then placed upright in a suitable solvent, eg water. As the solvent soaks up the paper, it carries the mixtures with it. Different components of the mixture will move at different rates. This separates the mixture out. Different chromatograms and the separated components of the mixtures can be identified by calculating the Rf value using the equation:
Rf = distance moved by the compound / distance moved by the solvent
The Rf value of a particular compound is always the same - if the chromatography has been carried out in the same way. This allows industry to use chromatography to identify compounds in mixtures.
Hypothesis: the marker is polar
• 3 Beaker
• 3 Chromatography Papers
• Water Soluble Marker Green
1. Pour each liquid in a different beaker.
2. Trace a line with the pencil on every sheet to 3 centimeters from the low
3. Draw a small ball with the marker on each line